|Title||Nanosecond pulsed electric field delivery to biological samples: difficulties and potential solutions|
|Publication Type||Book Chapter|
|Year of Publication||2010|
|Authors||Silve, A, Villemejane, J, Joubert, V, Ivorra, A, Mir, LM|
|Book Title||Advanced Electroporation Techniques in Biology and Medicine|
|Keywords||breakdown of dielectric, electrochemical reactions, impedance, matching, materials, monitoring, nanosecond electric pulses, thermal effects, transmission line, waves propagation|
In this chapter we discuss particular features of the nanosecond electric pulsed fields (nsPEFs) that must be taken into account when experimenting on their delivery to biological samples. The purpose of the chapter is to provide future users of this technology with some advice on how to correctly apply it. It is first analyzed how propagation related phenomena can impact on the actual electric field pulse that is applied to the sample. In particular, it is shown that impedance matching for the exposure chamber will be a key element. It is then proposed to employ monitoring systems for voltage and current signals and some indications about their use and limitations are given. Finally, the electrochemical and thermal consequences of nsPEFs delivery are also discussed. We conclude that only excellent experimental conditions can result in robust, controlled and reproducible data on the nsPEFs biological effects.