|Title||Electrical impedance characterization of normal and cancerous human hepatic tissue.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2010|
|Authors||Laufer, S, Ivorra, A, Reuter, VE, Rubinsky, B, Solomon, SB|
|Pagination||995–1009. © 2010 Institute of Physics and IOP Publishing Limited.|
|Keywords||80 and over, Adult, Aged, Electric Impedance, Electrodes, Female, Humans, Liver, Liver Cirrhosis, Liver Cirrhosis: pathology, Liver Neoplasms, Liver Neoplasms: pathology, Liver: pathology, Male, Middle Aged|
The four-electrode method was used to measure the ex vivo complex electrical impedance of tissues from 14 hepatic tumors and the surrounding normal liver from six patients. Measurements were done in the frequency range 1-400 kHz. It was found that the conductivity of the tumor tissue was much higher than that of the normal liver tissue in this frequency range (from 0.14 +/- 0.06 S m(-1) versus 0.03 +/- 0.01 S m(-1) at 1 kHz to 0.25 +/- 0.06 S m(-1) versus 0.15 +/- 0.03 S m(-1) at 400 kHz). The Cole-Cole models were estimated from the experimental data and the four parameters (rho(0), rho(infinity), alpha, f(c)) were obtained using a least-squares fit algorithm. The Cole-Cole parameters for the cancerous and normal liver are 9 +/- 4 Omega m(-1), 2.2 +/- 0.7 Omega m(-1), 0.5 +/- 0.2, 140 +/- 103 kHz and 50 +/- 28 Omega m(-1), 3.2 +/- 0.6 Omega m(-1), 0.64 +/- 0.04, 10 +/- 7 kHz, respectively. These data can contribute to developing bioelectric applications for tissue diagnostics and in tissue treatment planning with electrical fields such as radiofrequency tissue ablation, electrochemotherapy and gene therapy with reversible electroporation, nanoscale pulsing and irreversible electroporation.
© 2010 Institute of Physics and IOP Publishing Limited.